Government of Ambazonia

Tuesday, June 27, 2017
Home  >  Governance  >  Ministries  >  Energy, Water & Mineral Resources
Energy, Water & Mineral Resources PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 15 June 2011 13:21

Energy Independence for the Republic of Ambazonia

One of the areas of great concern to Ambazonians has been how the country will go about achieving a reassuring level of energy independence, given the fact that there are, as of now, no generating facilities on the territory of Ambazonia, making the Republic of Ambazonia entirely dependent on electricity from Cameroun. There is concern that the government of Cameroun shall try to frustrate the development efforts of the Republic of Ambazonia by disrupting electricity supplies to the territory. The question therefore is: what are the options available to the Republic of Ambazonia given its ambitious development plan?

Negotiations with Cameroun: At the moment the electricity requirements of Ambazonia are provided entirely through the grid that transports electricity from Edea in Cameroun. However, some of the energy which is generated at the power station in Edea is provided by water from the Bamendjin Dam which extends into Ambazonia in Ngokitunjia Division.

The Government of Ambazonia intends to include the supply of electricity as one of the key elements in the negotiations which will be conducted for the peaceful withdrawal of Cameroun occupational forces from Ambazonia. The Government of Ambazonia expects that once the agreements are reached, the terms shall be respected by all sides. However, the Government of Ambazonia shall arrange to allow for the duty free importation of generators by business organizations and other entities which may want to guard against any power shortages until the Government of Ambazonia is able to implement its program of energy independence

 

The Menchum Falls:There has been much speculation over the years about the potential of the hydroelectric energy that could be generated from Menchum Falls. While this is a theoretical possibility, this will require very detailed studies by hydroelectric engineers into the possible location of a hydroelectric dam downstream along the Menchum Valley so as to create a catchments area big enough to store water in an artificial lake. A commonly held misconception is that it is the water from the fall itself that will be used to generate electricity from turbines located at the foot of the waterfall. Nothing can be further from the truth than this.

The technology of hydroelectricity does not work on water from a waterfall itself; it works rather on water that is stored in an artificial lake which is created for that purpose. The amount of energy that can be generated from a hydroelectric facility depends on how much water can be stored in an artificial lake. Such an artificial lake will cover the whole of the Menchum valley, requiring the resettlement of thousands of villagers who currently farm along the Menchum valley. However, such projects are becoming very controversial with environmental groups which can generate enough opposition to prevent international funding agencies from supporting such a project.

 

Interconnection with the Federal Republic of Nigeria: A more recent development which is worthy of note is that the Government of Nigeria has awarded a contract to a Chinese firm to develop a 2600 MW hydroelectric project in Taraba State involving the construction of three dams and a 2600 MW power station in Abong. The construction of such a powerful hydroelectric power station on the border of Ambazonia will almost certainly eliminate any possibility of a similar project being undertaken in the Menchum valley in the future.

The Government of Ambazonia shall enter into negotiations with the Government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in order to sign an agreement by which there shall be an interconnection from the proposed hydroelectric power station in Abong to the electricity grid in Ambazonia. This shall involve constructing a high tension power line from Abong to Nkambe.

Wind Energy

An alternative proposal for energy independence, based on renewable energy sources is Wind Energy. This is an energy source which has not been sufficiently explored or exploited by developing countries.

There are currently about 10 gigawatts (GW, or billion watts) of installed wind power extracting devices in the world, with Germany and Denmark leading the way in Europe, and the United States accounting for 1.7 GW. By far the most common wind turbines are horizontal axis machines that look much like a traditional windmill, but there have been many novel designs of both horizontal and vertical axis machines. Wind turbine blades operate in a similar way to an aeroplane wing and use a lift rather than a drag mechanism, which means they are much more efficient than their windmill predecessors. Efficiencies of up to 40 per cent are quoted, but there is a theoretical maximum efficiency of 67 per cent. In addition, a turbine may, on average, only generate 30 per cent of the time in a given location, due to seasonal and daily wind variations.

Wind turbine generators are increasingly used as alternative sources of electricity generation. They are much less harmful to the environment than other sources of energy, but are not always practical because they require average wind speeds of at least 21 km/h (13 mph).

Wind turbines today are typically rated at between 750 kilowatts (kW) to 1 megawatt (MW), with 2 MW machines now in production. The main components of a wind turbine are a rotor that drives a gearbox. The gearbox increases the rotational speed by approximately 50 times before driving an electrical generator. The highly variable nature of the wind means that depending on the application, the power generated may be rectified and smoothed before being sold to the grid, or used in a nearby facility. The wind turbine also has sophisticated hydraulic and blade-feathering systems to ensure optimum and safe operation.

Modern machines usually start operating when wind speeds reach about 19 km/h (12 mph), achieve their rated power at about 40 to 48 km/h (25 to 30 mph), and shut down in wind speeds of about 100 km/h (60 mph). The best sites for turbine generators have annual average wind speeds of at least 21 km/h (13 mph).

Wind energy, which contributes very little pollution and few greenhouse gases to the environment, is a valuable alternative to nonrenewable fuel, such as oil. The most successful wind turbine generators for large-scale power generation have been of medium size (from 50 to 100 ft in diameter, with power ratings of 100 to 400 KW). These are sometimes installed in groups or arrays, known as wind farms. Some of the world's largest wind farms are in California, where wind turbines can generate power up to about 1,120 MW (a typical nuclear plant has a rating of about 1,100 MW). The cost to produce wind power in such applications is competitive with many other forms of power generation.

Ambazonia is endowed with topographical conditions (compared to other West African countries) which could enable the country to reap a windfall in terms of energy from wind generating systems. Apart from the aspect of their environmental friendliness, such wind systems are perpetually renewable. Furthermore, the flexibility of their location anywhere in the country will make it much easier to site such systems closer to rural areas which have not previously been served with electricity, thereby making it possible to make the goal of universal rural electrification much more easily realizable.

The Government of Ambazonia shall commission a major study with the assistance of engineering firms from countries which have experience in wind energy systems to identify potential and favorable locations in every administrative region of Ambazonia where wind farms can be established. A corporate body shall be setup to oversee the construction of wind energy systems in the various wind farms to generate electricity which shall be fed into the national grid. The multiplicity of such wind farms throughout the country will ensure that Ambazonia will be placed beyond the pale of vulnerability as far as its future electrical energy needs are concerned.

Wind energy systems hold one of the keys, in a multiple key strategy, for transforming the economy of the Republic of Ambazonia, by making electricity more affordably available in rural areas. Wherever electricity is available, it shall be much easier to introduce the gamut of services and complementary infrastructure which will enable schools and the public at large to plug into the global economic systems which are increasingly driven by ICT.

Potential Sites for Wind Farms

  • Njinikom in Boyo
  • Tatum, Kikaikilaki, |akiri, Mbiami in Bui
  • Nkambe.Binshua, Binka Mbot Mbiyeh, Ndu in Donga & Mantling
  • Sabga, Santa, Bali in Mezam
  • Mbengwi, Batibo, Ngie, Ngwo, Oshie in Momo
  • Wum, We in Menchum

The wind farms shall be located as close as possible to the existing high tension power lines so that the generated power shall be fed into the electricity grid. The goal of this program shall be to ensure that there is an installed capacity of around 1000 MW from wind generating systems around the country.

International investors shall be invited to invest in wind energy systems as independent power producers. Their role shall be to generate electricity from wind systems and sell to the national grid at agreed prices. They shall be required to install and maintain the systems by themselves and train Ambazonians in the maintenance of wind systems.

The Government of Ambazonia shall also attach high priority to the construction of a high tension transmission line between Bamenda and Mamfe so that electricity generated from the wind farms that shall be based at the above locations shall provide the needs of Manyu. This power line shall also link up with the high tension line that has already been construction from Meme to Manyu. This interconnection with all the cantons of the Ambazonia shall be an essential first step towards the energy independence of Ambazonia.

 

Petroleum Development Policy

Under the colonial occupation of French Cameroun, the oil industry, which has been exclusively based in Ambazonia, has been on the decline after production peaked at 9.1 million tons in 1985. World oil price levels in the late 1970s led to aggressive exploration and proven reserves of 40 million Tons were established. It has been estimated that at current production levels (4.7 MT in 1995), the proven reserves were largely exhausted in 2000 and whatever is left has already been mortgaged by the cash-strapped government of French Cameroun.

Petroleum Exploration: The petroleum industry has for a long time considered hydrocarbons code developed by the colonial government of French Cameroun to be unattractive. Furthermore during the 1990s the depleted oil reserves.


Crude Oil Production (X 1000T) in Ambazonia

Year

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

Crude Oil Production

5689

7400

9170

8974

8348

8482

8635

8480

7710

7018

6600

5800

4700

 

The actions to be taken in the mining sector shall be by way of legislation which shall aim at:

  1. Defining a new the hydrocarbons code so as to encourage intensive seismic work and wild-cat drilling in marginal areas;
  2. Increasing the profit margins of oil companies on condition that they re-invest the surplus profits into further research and development;
  3. The promotion of the production of other types of non-oil minerals;
  4. The promotion of small and medium scale enterprises in joint-venture in the mining field by providing them with facilities for the importation of equipment and supplies needed for mining operations;
  5. Making provisions for the active participation of Ambazonians in all aspects of the petroleum industry;
  6. The creation of the National Oil Company of Ambazonia that shall be charged with the responsibility of regulating the oil industry in the Republic of Ambazonia and for enforcing environmental guidelines for the industry.
  7. The creation of an international petroleum refining complex on the Ambazonian coast dedicated to the refining of petroleum products for export.
  8. The creation of the largest international oil depot on the African coast;

It is generally believed that the Bakassi Peninsula contains considerable oil reserves. However, these oil reserves shall be developed only after the Government of Ambazonia has outlined the policy matrix that shall be used for protecting the environment and the ecosystem on which the indigenes of the Bakassi Peninsula depend on their livelihood. The mistakes that were committed in the Niger Delta shall be avoided at all cost. It is for this reason that the Government of Ambazonia intends to ensure that no oil company that has not been licensed by the Government of Ambazonia shall be allowed to explore, drill, produce or export petroleum from the Bakassi Peninsula. This policy shall he strictly enforced.

 

Petroleum Refining: Since it was established in the early 1980s, the role of SONARA as a producer of petroleum products for the economy of Ambazonia and Cameroun has been strategic. SONARA has however never been able to operate close to its capacity of 1.0 Million tons largely because the combined needs of Ambazonia and Cameroun economy are still around 500,000 tons/year. The State owns 66% of the interests in SONARA while private foreign companies own 34%.


SONARA: Production of Petroleum Products (000' tons)

Kerosene

Motor Gasoline1

Aviation Gasoline

Jet Fuel

LPG

Fuel Oil

HFO

Lubes

Bitumen

1983

235

230

10

91

17

575

675

90

5

1984

290

370

10

93

19

410

695

110

4

1985

1986

92

95

415

45

10

10

95

9

18

19

230

238

150

153

35

37

5

5

1987

101

48

11

8

17

242

155

41

5

1988

1989

97

98

55

57

12

11

9

7

18

19

245

238

160

158

41

45

5

6

1990

110

55

12

8

18

251

147

37

7

1991

1992

115

117

51

54

11

12

9

9

19

19

254

255

150

152

37

35

7

7

 

Since the creation of the Bitumen Company which is attached to SONARA, production of bitumen has been very modest because there have been no major road construction projects in the country. The road program which is going to be implemented in the transport sector will require a domestic source of bitumen. In order to encourage the production of bitumen by SONARA, the Government of Ambazonia shall remove price controls on bitumen so that the output can be sold to contractors at prices which reflect the cost on the international market.

 

Establishment of an International Oil Refining Complex on the West Coast: Notwithstanding the existing refinery which is located near the town of Victoria in Ambazonia, and whose role is to provide petroleum products to the economy of Ambazonia and Cameroon, the Government of Ambazonia intends to invite international oil companies which are interested in participating in the oil development of the Bakassi Peninsula to establish oil refining complexes on the West Coast of Ambazonia. The international oil refining complexes shall be exclusively for export.

All the necessary fiscal incentives shall be provided to the oil operators to refine the crude oil in situ before export instead of the direct export of crude to other refineries overseas. Companies interested in establishing refineries shall be offered the most attractive conditions for oil exploration and production. The international oil refining complex shall also create other derivative products in the petroleum industry so as to make the Republic of Ambazonia a major producer of all petroleum and petrochemical products.

The intention of the Government of Ambazonia is to ensure that the citizens of the Republic of Ambazonia are given an opportunity to acquire oil industry related skills which will make the Republic of Ambazonia a refining center for the world oil market long after the crude oil reserves of the Republic of Ambazonia are exhausted.

 

Participating in the Activities of the Joint Development Zone JDZ: In February 2005, Nigeria announced the award of five oil blocks in the Joint Development Zone JDZ), shared by Nigeria and neighboring Sao Tome and Principe (STP). Twenty-six companies submitted bids for the blocks by the conclusion of the 2004 licensing round. In December 2004, Nigeria and Sao Tome opened the second licensing round for blocks in the JDZ.

The JDZ reportedly holds reserves of 11 billion barrels and could potentially yield up to 3 million barrels/d in the next 2-3 years. Development is also occurring in the waters surrounding the JDZ. In March 2005, Spinnaker Exploration (US) purchased a 12.5 percent interest in OPL Block 256 from Ocean Energy, a subsidiary of Devon Energy. Drilling of the Tari 1 exploratory well at OPL Block 256, located 125 miles off the Nigerian coast near the JDZ, has commenced. Three wells are planned for the block. The GOVERNMENT OF AMBAZONIA wants to participate in the oil production activities of the JDZ by offering the IPRC as a venue for the refining of the petroleum from the JDZ. As the IPRC shall be a petroleum refining complex dedicated for exports, oil companies which are involved in developing oilfields in the JDZ will consider sending some of the crude to the IPRC for refining rather shipping the crude to distant refineries elsewhere in the world.

 

Famous Quotes

“I President Paul Biya of the Republic of Cameroun do hereby, in a bid to provide lasting peace to the Bakassi conflict, commit myself and my government to respect the territorial boundaries of my country as obtained at independence.”
- Annan-Bakassi Peace Accord

I can state here and now that the People of southern Cameroons (Ambazonians) would never have voted in favour of unification with French Cameroun if it had not been for the assurances given that the resulting union would take the form of a federation...
- John Ngu Foncha

International Law does not regard you (Ambazonians) as people of Cameroonian Nationality; this must be shocking to you.
- Fongum Gorji-Dinka
Read More Fongum Gorji-Dinka